Sift the flour and baking powder into a medium bowl.
Combine the buttermilk and vanilla.
In a stand mixer, combine the sugar and butter. Whip until fluffy.
Add the eggs one at a time.
Then alternate the flour and the buttermilk mixture, adding 1/3 of the flour mixture first, then half the buttermilk and so on until everything is used up. Scrape the bowl several times during the process.
Scrape the finished batter into the pan on top of the caramel and bananas.
Bake about 50 minutes until the cake is golden, bounces a bit when tapped with a finger, and begins to pull away from the pan.
Cool it for five minutes, then unmold it onto a serving plate.
Serve warm or at room temperature (both are fantastic) with a small scoop of ice cream.